## construct2 volume adjust with angles - construct-2

new to construct and need some help getting a knob to set the volume of a track. How do i get the the know to stay within angles and adjust the volume to the attached audio accorindly. The image has the current angles i want to stay between.

You need to use the 'is clockwise of' condition here, since you can't compare angles using 'greater than' or 'less than' because they don't take in to account the fact angles over 360 wrap around back to 0. Negate 'Is clockwise of' to mean 'Is anticlockwise of'.
For example:
[Negate] Is clockwise of 135 degrees: set angle to 135 degrees
Is clockwise of 45 degrees: set angle to 45 degrees

## Related

### Add distance to a latitude or longitude

Say I have a latitude of 38.802610 and a longitude of -116.419389 and I want to be able to add a distance to that, 20 miles for example. So far I have came up with a rough idea on how I would do this Firstly, work out how many miles are in 1° of latitude, say for example it was 30 Then, divide one by it: 1 / 30 = 0.033333 Add it to my original latitude to get my maximum ° of latitude: 38.802610 + 0.033333 = 38.8355943 Subtract it to my original latitude to get my minimum ° of latitude: 38.802610 - 0.033333 = 38.769277 But this is flawed because there seems to be no direct conversion for longitude as from what I've read the calculation varies. Ultimately, I need to be able to find out the: maximum latitude (my current latitude + given distance e.g 20 miles) minimum latitude (my current latitude - given distance e.g 20 miles) maximum longitude (my current longitude + given distance e.g 20 miles) minimum longitude (my current longitude - given distance e.g 20 miles) Any help would be greatly appreciated, thank you.

Linear distances (e.g. 20 miles or 32186.88 m) cannot directly be converted to distances in degrees of latitude or longitude, since the Earth is not flat. However, there are two direct conversion you can try to project one point given a linear distance and azimuth to another point. Method 1 is to assume a spherical Earth, using Movable Type's "destination point given distance and bearing from start point". The underling equations are described on the website. The difference of latitude is the same in North and South directions, and the difference of longitude is the same in East and West directions, so you can do a minimum of two calculations to determine all four min/max and lat/long combinations. Method 2 is to assumes a spheroid Earth (also called an ellipsoid of revolution), and calculate a direct geodesic with GeographicLib, which has bindings to several programming languages. The difference of latitude is slightly different in North and South directions, but the same in East and West directions, so you can do a minimum of three calculations. Or just assume the difference in North or South directions is approximately the same and just do two calculations. This method has sub-millimetre accuracy.

### Sun elevation calculation using nrel

I am looking for a formula to calculate sun elevation angle from the below data. I have downloaded data into an Excel sheet by providing the required latitudes and longitudes. Questions are: How do I calculate elevation angle from zenith and azimuth angle? What is refer Top. azimuth angle (westward from S) & Top. azimuth angle (eastward from N) from image What is converted elevation formula to determine elevation angle from east to west? Nrel calculator

Elevation angle MIGHT BE the complement of zenith angle (i.e., 90 minus zenith angle). To verify that, and to find out the definitions of all the angles they use, look at the paper linked from the web page about the NREL calculator software: https://www.nrel.gov/midc/spa/

### how to convert longitude and altitude to a grid with equal(nearly) area on the Earth sphere in Matlab or C/C++?

The range of longitude and latitude of Earth sphere are [-180, 180] and [-90, 90] respectively. I want to get equal area grids by 0.5 deg * 0.5 deg (area around the equator). As the distortion increased when approaching the polar points. The grid should have the same latitude range but different longitude range. How should I do?

First, what you ask got, if interpreted literally, is impossible for three reasons. One, the area of the surface of a perfect sphere is about 82506.97413 times the area of a portion 30' (thirty seconds, or half a degree) by 30' at the equator. Since that is not an integer, you cannot partition the surface into a whole number of regions of that size. Two, if you constrain the latitude span to be equal, then the rings at different latitudes must have different numbers of segments, so you cannot make a grid. The edges of segments in different rings cannot coincide. Three, the Earth is not a perfect sphere, and regions of equal area on a sphere will not map to equal areas on the Earth. Imperfections in the Earth would prevent us from knowing the area of each region (and those areas would change as the surface changes). Supposing that what you actually want is an approximate solution that is not a grid, I suggest you examine the Google search results for “partition sphere into equal areas“. One of the top results is this paper, in which Figure 1.1 appears to show a sphere that has been partitioned into regions of similar, possibly equal, latitude span but different longitude spans. Another result is this page, which is a Matlab package for exploring sphere partitioning.

You are trying to put equal area tiles on the earth's surface with fixed extent like the mirrors on a disco ball. So if you start at the Equator with a 0.5deg*0.5deg tile, your next tile to the north or south would have a longitude extent of 0.5deg/cos(0.5deg) to have the same area, so slightly above 0.5deg. With that tile you cannot fill the full circle with an integer number of tiles. Ending at the pole your tile longitude extent would be 0.5deg/cos(89.5deg) = 59,29..deg which also does not fit exactly into 360degs. If you decrease the size of your tiles you might have an acceptable small error but yet no real "grid" because coming to the poles there will always be less tiles than at the Equator.. Maybe something like "equal area map projection" might help? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Map_projection#Equal-area

Two possible solutions here (formulas in R): lat<-seq(-89.75,89.75,by=0.5) Formula 1, based on the area of a grid point in the equator (111.11km2). r<-(111*10^3*0.5)*(111*10^3*0.5)*cos(lat*pi/180) Formula 2, based on the radius of the Earth. ER<-6371*1000 r2<-(ER^2)*(0.5*pi/180)^2*cos(lat*pi/180)

### converting distance into coordinates [duplicate]

This question already has an answer here: Closed 11 years ago. How do i convert a given distance (in metres) into geographic coordinates. What I need is to draw a polygon on the map (a regular polygon, like a circle), however, it's radius is given in meters, how do I calculate the radius in degrees or radians? I'll probally code it in c

Oh man, geographic coordinates can be a pain in the behind. First of all, I'm assuming that by geographic coordinates, you're talking about geodetic coordinates (lat/lon). Second of all, you can't find a "radius" in radians or degrees. Why, you ask? Well, one degree of longitude at the equator is WAY longer than one degree of longitude close to the north or south pole. The arc of one degree latitude also changes based on your location on the earth since the earth is not a perfect sphere. It's usually modeled as an ellipsoid. That being said, here are two ways to map the coordinates of a polygon onto lat-lon coordinates: 1) If you're feeling like a complete badass, you can do the math in lat-lon. Lots of trig, easy to make mistakes... DON'T DO IT. I'm just including this option here to let you know that it is possible. 2) Convert your geodetic coordinates to UTM. Then, you can do whatever you need to do in meters (i.e. find the vertices of a polygon), and then convert the resulting UTM back to geodetic. Personally, I think this is the way to go.

Well, consider that at the equator (0 degrees latitude) one degree of longitude is equal to appximately 60 nautical miles. At either pole (90 degrees latitude) a single degree of longitude equals 0 nautical miles. As I remember the cosine of the latitude times 60 will give you the approximate distance in nautical miles at that latitude of a single degree of longitude. However, how accurate you would be would have to account for the map projection you're using. For aeronautical maps, they use the Lambert Conformal Conic projection, which means distances are only exactly accurate along the two latitudes that the cone cuts the sphere of the earth. But if an approximation is good enough, you may not need the accuracy. For conversion, one nautical mile equals 1.852 km. If I did the arithmetic properly (no guarantee, I'm in my 70s), that means that a meter equals (except as you get really close to the poles) 0.0000009 degrees latitude. It also equals 0.0000009 degrees longitude on the equator. If you're not at the equator, divide the 0.0000009 by the cosine of the latitude to get the degrees of longitude. So, a 1000 meter radius circle at 45 degrees latitude would mean a radius of 0.0009 degrees latitude and 0.0009/0.707 degrees longitude. Approximately of course. All this is from memory, so take it with a grain of salt. If you really want to get involved, Google geographic equations or some such.

Check out http://trac.osgeo.org/proj/wiki/GeodesicCalculations. Depending on the accuracy you need, this can get pretty complicated, so you're probably best off starting from some existing code.

### Given centers, find minimum radius for set of circles such that they fully cover another

I have the following geometry problem: You are given a circle with the center in origin - C(0, 0), and radius 1. Inside the circle are given N points which represent the centers of N different circles. You are asked to find the minimum radius of the small circles (the radius of all the circles are equal) in order to cover all the boundary of the large circle. The number of circles is: 3 ≤ N ≤ 10000 and the problem has to be solved with a precision of P decimals where 1 ≤ P ≤ 6. For example: N = 3 and P = 4 and the coordinates: (0.193, 0.722) (-0.158, -0.438) (-0.068, 0.00) The radius of the small circles is: 1.0686. I have the following idea but my problem is implementing it. The idea consists of a binary search to find the radius and for each value given by the binary search to try and find all the intersection point between the small circles and the large one. Each intersection will have as result an arc. The next step is to 'project' the coordinates of the arcs on to the X axis and Y axis, the result being a number of intervals. If the reunions of the intervals from the X and the Y axis have as result the interval [-1, 1] on each axis, it means that all the circle is covered. In order to avoid precision problems I thought of searching between 0 and 2×10P, and also taking the radius as 10P, thus eliminating the figures after the comma, but my problem is figuring out how to simulate the intersection of the circles and afterwards how to see if the reunion of the resulting intervals form the interval [-1, 1]. Any suggestions are welcomed!

Each point in your set has to cover the the intersection of its cell in the point-set's voronoi diagram and the test-circle around the origin. To find the radius, start by computing the voronoi diagram of your point set. Now "close" this voronoi diagram by intersecting all infinite edges with your target-circle. Then for each point in your set, check the distance to all the points of its "closed" voronoi cell. The maximum should be your solution. It shouldn't matter that the cells get closed by an arc instead of a straight line by the test-circle until your solution radius gets greater than 1 (because then the "small" circles will arc stronger). In that case, you also have to check the furthest point from the cell center to that arc.

I might be missing something, but it seems that you only need to find the maximal minimal distance between a point in the circle and the given points. That is, if you consider the set of all points on the circle, and take the minimal distance between each point to one of the given points, and then take the maximal values of all these - you have found your radius. This is, of course, not an algorithm, as there are uncountably many points. I think what I'll do would be along the line of: Find the minimal distance between the circumference and the set of points, this is your initial radius R. Check if the entire circle was covered, like so: For any two points whose distance from each other is more than 2R, check if the entire segment was covered (for each point, check if the circle around it intersects, and if so, remove that segment and keep going). That should take about o(N^3) (you iterate over all of the points for each pair of points). If I'm correct (though I didn't formally prove it) the circle is covered iff all of the segments are covered. Of all the segment which weren't covered, take the long one, and add half it's length to R. Repeat. This algorithm will never cover the circle per se, but it's easy to prove that it exponentially converges to a full cover, so it should be able to find the needed radius with arbitrary accuracy within a reasonable amount of iterations. Hope that helps.