How do I verify my phone number on Amazon Sagemaker Studio Labs if it's shorter than 12 digits? - amazon-sagemaker

As of today Amazon are requiring phone number verification before allowing you to use a GPU for compute. The trouble is, when I enter my number in the international format, I get an error asking me to enter a 12-digit phone number. "Enter an12-digit phone number"
The trouble is, my phone number isn't 12-digits long. Even with the international calling code (+ followed by digits) in front of it, the longest I can make it is 11 digits, and that's with the leading zero that doesn't need to be included when using the international calling code.
Has anyone else hit this issue and if so, how have you formatted your number to satisfy Amazon's buggy data validation?
Formatting my number with and without leading zeros, and also adding zeros at the end of it, even though this is incorrect.


SSRS - Data Driven Subscription, avoid using special character in filename. There are no special characters

I'm using SSRS Data Driven subscriptions to produce 300,000+ word documents (.docx).
The majority are being produced fine however, some are reporting an error of
The filename is invalid. Avoid using special characters such as /\?*<>:|+,[]"&
All the filename are consecutive numbers starting from 10000000. One of them failing, for example, is 10898392, so no special characters and no trailing spaces etc.
I cannot work out why this is happening - any thoughts on this appreciated.

How can I generate unique, non-sequential serial keys without 3rd party software?

I'm working on a project that involves writing low-level C software for a hardware implementation. We are wanting to implement a new feature for our devices that our users can unlock when they purchase an associated license key.
The desired implementation steps are simple. The user calls us up, they request the feature and sends us a payment. Next, we email them a product key which they input into their hardware to unlock the feature.
Our hardware is not connected to the internet. Therefore, an algorithm must be implemented in such a way that these keys can be generated from both the server and from within the device. Seeds for the keys can be derived from the hardware serial number, which is available in both locations.
I need a simple algorithm that can take sequential numbers and generate unique, non-sequential keys of 16-20 alphanumeric characters.
SHA-1 looks to be the best way to go. However, what I am seeing from sample output of SHA-1 keys is that they are pretty long (40 chars). Would I obtain sufficient results if I took the 40 char key and, say, truncated all but the last 16 characters?
You could just concatenate the serial number of the device, the feature name/code and some secret salt and hash the result with SHA1 (or another secure hashing algorithm). The device compares the given hash to the hash generated for each feature, and if it finds a match it enables the feature.
By the way, to keep the character count down I'd suggest to use base64 as encoding after the hashing pass.
SHA-1 looks to be the best way to go. However, what I am seeing from sample output of SHA-1 keys is that they are pretty long (40 chars). Would I obtain sufficient results if I took the 40 char result and, say, truncated all but the last 16 characters?
Generally it's not a good idea to truncate hashes, they are designed to exploit all the length of the output to provide good security and resistance to collisions. Still, you could cut down the character count using base64 instead of hexadecimal characters, it would go from 40 characters to 27.
Hex: a94a8fe5ccb19ba61c4c0873d391e987982fbbd3
Base64: qUqP5cyxm6YcTAhz05Hph5gvu9M
Actually, #Nick Johnson claims with convincing arguments that hashes can be truncated without big security implications (obviously increasing chances of collisions of two times for each bit you are dropping).
You should also use an HMAC instead of naively prepending or appending the key to the hash. Per Wikipedia:
The design of the HMAC specification was motivated by the existence of
attacks on more trivial mechanisms for combining a key with a hash
function. For example, one might assume the same security that HMAC
provides could be achieved with MAC = H(key ∥ message). However, this
method suffers from a serious flaw: with most hash functions, it is
easy to append data to the message without knowing the key and obtain
another valid MAC. The alternative, appending the key using MAC =
H(message ∥ key), suffers from the problem that an attacker who can
find a collision in the (unkeyed) hash function has a collision in the
MAC. Using MAC = H(key ∥ message ∥ key) is better, however various
security papers have suggested vulnerabilities with this approach,
even when two different keys are used.
For more details on the security implications of both this and length truncation, see sections 5 and 6 of RFC2104.
One option is to use a hash as Matteo describes.
Another is to use a block cipher (e.g. AES). Just pick a random nonce and invoke the cipher in counter mode using your serial numbers as the counter.
Of course, this will make the keys invertible, which may or may not be a desirable property.
You can use an Xorshift random number generator to generate a unique 64-bit key, and then encode that key using whatever scheme you want. If you use base-64, the key is 11 characters long. If you use hex encoding, the key would be 16 characters long.
The Xorshift RNG is basically just a bit mixer, and there are versions that have a guaranteed period of 2^64, meaning that it's guaranteed to generate a unique value for every input.
The other option is to use a linear feedback shift register, which also will generate a unique number for each different input.

What does the datatype specification '9(7)V9T' mean?

In some functional specs I'm reading they are talking about a numeric format with a 9(7)V9T presentation.
-How do I interprete this kind of format notations?
-How is this type physically stored in a flatfile (e.g. numeric?, signs? separators?)
Thank you for your wise answers!
A COBOL PICTURE string, such as 9(7)V9T specifies the general characteristics and editing requirements of an elementary
data item. A 9 represents a decimal digit, the (7) is a repetition factor for the preceding character. In this case
a 9. The V is an implied decimal point. This is all standard COBOL. So far we have an 8 digit decimal number with
an implied decimal point between the 7th and 8th digits.
The T is a bit of a curve ball. I have never
actually come across it before. However,
I Goolged up this reference.
It states that a T in a PICTURE string "... indicates that a display numeric field should only insert the sign into the upper
half of the last byte if the value is negative". Unfortunately, the author doesn't provide a reference so I can't
give you the source of this convention.
A COBOL picture of PIC S9(7)V9 USAGE DISPLAY on an IBM platform conforms to the 9(7)V9T description you have. This
data item
takes 8 bytes to represent. Each of the 8 digits are represented in the low 4 bits of each byte with the sign
recorded in the upper 4 bits of the low order byte. This just happens to be the way IBM choose to implement zoned-decimal.
Using a 9(7)V9T representation makes the representation explicit.
An alternative to the other answers is that the T is a character to be displayed or printed after the numeric value to represent a specific state, similar to use of CR for credit value or a trailing '-' to indicate a negative value.

How do I choose a good magic number for my file format?

I am designing a binary file format from scratch, and I would like to include some magic bytes at the beginning so that it can be identified easily. How do I go about choosing which bytes? I am not aware of any central registry of magic numbers, so is it just a matter of picking something fairly random that isn't already identified by, say, the file command on a nearby UNIX box?
Stay away from super-short magic numbers. Just because you're designing a binary format doesn't mean you can't use a text string for identifier. Follow that by an EOF char, and as an added bonus people who cat or type your binary file won't get a mangled terminal.
There is no universally correct way. Best practices can be suggested, but these often situational. For example, if you're checking the integrity of volatile memory, which has an undefined initial state when power is applied, it may be beneficial to incorporate many 0s or 1s in a sequence (i.e. FFF0 00FF F000) which can stand out against random noise.
If the file is mostly binary, a popular choice is using a text encoding like ASCII which stands out among the binary data in a hex editor. For example, GIF uses GIF89a, FLAC uses fLaC. On the other hand, a plain text identifier may be falsely detected in a random text file, so invalid/control characters might be incorporated.
In general, it does not matter that much what they are, even a bunch of NULL bytes can be used for file detection. But ideally you want the longest unique identifier you can afford, and at minimum 4 bytes long. Any identifier under 4 bytes will show up more often in random data. The longer it is, the less likely it will ever be detected as a false positive. Some known examples are as long as 40 bytes. In a way, it's like a password.
Also, it doesn't have to be at offset 0. The file signature has conventionally been at offset zero, since it made sense to store it first if it will be processed first.
That said, a single file signature should not be the only line of defense. The actual parsing process itself should be able to verify integrity and weed out invalid files even if the signature matches. This can be done with additional file signatures, using length-sensitive data, value/range checking, and especially, hash/checksum values.

How do I align a number like this in C?

I need to align a series of numbers in C with printf() like this example:
Of course, there are numbers between all those but it's not relevant for the issue at hand... Oh, consider the dashes as spaces, I used dashes so it was easier to understand what I want.
I'm only able to do this:
Or this:
But none of this is what I want and I can't achieve what is displayed on the first example using only printf(). Is it possible at all?
Sorry people, I was in a hurry and didn't explain myself well... My last example and all your suggestions (to use something like "%8d") do not work because, although the last number is 1000 it doesn't necessarily go all the way to 1000 or even 100 or 10 for that matter.
No matter the number of digits to be displayed, I only want 4 leading spaces at most for the largest number. Let's say I have to display digits from 1 to 1000 (A) and 1 to 100 (B) and I use, for both, "%4d", this would be the output:
Which is the output I want...
Which is not the output I want, I actually want this:
But like I said, I don't know the exact number of numbers I have to print, it can have 1 digit, it can have 2, 3 or more, the function should be prepared for all. And I want four extra additional leading spaces but that's not that relevant.
It seems that what I want, the way I need it, it's not possible (check David Thornley and Blank Xavier answers and my comments). Thank you all for your time.
Why is printf("%8d\n", intval); not working for you? It should...
You did not show the format strings for any of your "not working" examples, so I'm not sure what else to tell you.
#include <stdio.h>
int i;
for (i = 1; i <= 10000; i*=10) {
printf("[%8d]\n", i);
return (0);
$ ./printftest
[ 1]
[ 10]
[ 100]
[ 1000]
[ 10000]
EDIT: response to clarification of question:
#include <math.h>
int maxval = 1000;
int width = round(1+log(maxval)/log(10));
printf("%*d\n", width, intval);
The width calculation computes log base 10 + 1, which gives the number of digits. The fancy * allows you to use the variable for a value in the format string.
You still have to know the maximum for any given run, but there's no way around that in any language or pencil & paper.
Looking this up in my handy Harbison & Steele....
Determine the maximum width of fields.
int max_width, value_to_print;
max_width = 8;
value_to_print = 1000;
printf("%*d\n", max_width, value_to_print);
Bear in mind that max_width must be of type int to work with the asterisk, and you'll have to calculate it based on how much space you're going to want to have. In your case, you'll have to calculate the maximum width of the largest number, and add 4.
[I realize this question is a million years old, but there is a deeper question (or two) at its heart, about OP, the pedagogy of programming, and about assumption-making.]
A few people, including a mod, have suggested this is impossible. And, in some--including the most obvious--contexts, it is. But it's interesting to see that that wasn't immediately obvious to the OP.
The impossibility assumes that the contex is running an executable compiled from C on a line-oriented text console (e.g., console+sh or X-term+csh or Terminal+bash), which is a very reasonable assumption. But the fact that the "right" answer ("%8d") wasn't good enough for OP while also being non-obvious suggests that there's a pretty big can of worms nearby...
Consider Curses (and its many variants). In it, you can navigate the "screen", and "move" the cursor around, and "repaint" portions (windows) of text-based output. In a Curses context, it absolutely would be possible to do; i.e., dynamically resize a "window" to accommodate a larger number. But even Curses is just a screen "painting" abstraction. No one suggested it, and probably rightfully so, because a Curses implementation in C doesn't mean it's "strictly C". Fine.
But what does this really mean? In order for the response: "it's impossible" to be correct, it would mean that we're saying something about the runtime system. In other words, this isn't theoretical, (as in, "How do I sort a statically-allocated array of ints?"), which can be explained as a "closed system" that totally ignores any aspect of the runtime.
But, in this case, we have I/O: specifically, the implementation of printf(). But that's where there's an opportunity to have said something more interesting in response (even though, admittedly, the asker was probably not digging quite this deep).
Suppose we use a different set of assumptions. Suppose OP is reasonably "clever" and understands that it would not be possible to to edit previous lines on a line-oriented stream (how would you correct the horizontal position of a character output by a line-printer??). Suppose also, that OP isn't just a kid working on a homework assignment and not realizing it was a "trick" question, intended to tease out an exploration of the meaning of "stream abstraction". Further, let's suppose OP was wondering: "Wait...If C's runtime environment supports the idea of STDOUT--and if STDOUT is just an abstraction--why isn't it just as reasonable to have a terminal abstraction that 1) can vertically scroll but 2) supports a positionable cursor? Both are moving text on a screen."
Because if that were the question we're trying to answer, then you'd only have to look as far as:
ANSI Escape Codes
to see that:
Almost all manufacturers of video terminals added vendor-specific escape sequences to perform operations such as placing the cursor at arbitrary positions on the screen. One example is the VT52 terminal, which allowed the cursor to be placed at an x,y location on the screen by sending the ESC character, a Y character, and then two characters representing with numerical values equal to the x,y location plus 32 (thus starting at the ASCII space character and avoiding the control characters). The Hazeltine 1500 had a similar feature, invoked using ~, DC1 and then the X and Y positions separated with a comma. While the two terminals had identical functionality in this regard, different control sequences had to be used to invoke them.
The first popular video terminal to support these sequences was the Digital VT100, introduced in 1978. This model was very successful in the market, which sparked a variety of VT100 clones, among the earliest and most popular of which was the much more affordable Zenith Z-19 in 1979. Others included the Qume QVT-108, Televideo TVI-970, Wyse WY-99GT as well as optional "VT100" or "VT103" or "ANSI" modes with varying degrees of compatibility on many other brands. The popularity of these gradually led to more and more software (especially bulletin board systems and other online services) assuming the escape sequences worked, leading to almost all new terminals and emulator programs supporting them.
It has been possible, as early as 1978. C itself was "born" in 1972, and the K&R version was established in 1978. If "ANSI" escape sequences were around at that time, then there is an answer "in C" if we're willing to also stipulate: "Well, assuming your terminal is VT100-capable." Incidentally, the consoles which don't support ANSI escapes? You guessed it: Windows & DOS consoles. But on almost every other platform (Unices, Vaxen, Mac OS, Linux) you can expect to.
TL;DR - There is no reasonable answer that can be given without stating assumptions about the runtime environment. Since most runtimes (unless you're using desktop-computer-market-share-of-the-80's-and-90's to calculate 'most') would have, (since the time of the VT-52!), then I don't think it's entirely justified to say that it's impossible--just that in order for it to be possible, it's an entire different order of magnitude of work, and not as simple as %8d...which it kinda seemed like the OP knew about.
We just have to clarify the assumptions.
And lest one thinks that I/O is exceptional, i.e., the only time we need to think about the runtime, (or even the hardware), just dig into IEEE 754 Floating Point exception handling. For those interested:
Intel Floating Point Case Study
According to Professor William Kahan, University of California at
Berkeley, a classic case occurred in June 1996. A satellite-lifting
rocket named Ariane 5 turned cartwheels shortly after launch and
scattered itself and a payload worth over half a billion dollars over
a marsh in French Guiana. Kahan found the disaster could be blamed
upon a programming language that disregarded the default
exception-handling specifications in IEEE 754. Upon launch, sensors
reported acceleration so strong that it caused a conversion-to-integer
overflow in software intended for recalibration of the rocket’s
inertial guidance while on the launching pad.
So, you want an 8-character wide field with spaces as the padding? Try "%8d". Here's a reference.
EDIT: What you're trying to do is not something that can be handled by printf alone, because it will not know what the longest number you are writing is. You will need to calculate the largest number before doing any printfs, and then figure out how many digits to use as the width of your field. Then you can use snprintf or similar to make a printf format on the spot.
char format[20];
snprintf(format, 19, "%%%dd\\n", max_length);
while (got_output) {
printf(format, number);
got_output = still_got_output();
Try converting to a string and then use "%4.4s" as the format specifier. This makes it a fixed width format.
As far as I can tell from the question, the amount of padding you want will vary according to the data you have. Accordingly, the only solution to this is to scan the data before printing, to figure out the widest datum, and so find a width value you can pass to printf using the asterix operator, e.g.
loop over data - get correct padding, put into width
printf( "%*d\n", width, datum );
If you can't know the width in advance, then your only possible answer would depend on staging your output in a temporary buffer of some kind. For small reports, just collecting the data and deferring output until the input is bounded would be simplest.
For large reports, an intermediate file may be required if the collected data exceeds reasonable memory bounds.
Once you have the data, then it is simple to post-process it into a report using the idiom printf("%*d", width, value) for each value.
Alternatively if the output channel permits random access, you could just go ahead and write a draft of the report that assumes a (short) default width, and seek back and edit it any time your width assumption is violated. This also assumes that you can pad the report lines outside that field in some innocuous way, or that you are willing to replace the output so far by a read-modify-write process and abandon the draft file.
But unless you can predict the correct width in advance, it will not be possible to do what you want without some form of two-pass algorithm.
Looking at the edited question, you need to find the number of digits in the largest number to be presented, and then generate the printf() format using sprintf(), or using %*d with the number of digits being passed as an int for the * and then the value. Once you've got the biggest number (and you have to determine that in advance), you can determine the number of digits with an 'integer logarithm' algorithm (how many times can you divide by 10 before you get to zero), or by using snprintf() with the buffer length of zero, the format %d and null for the string; the return value tells you how many characters would have been formatted.
If you don't know and cannot determine the maximum number ahead of its appearance, you are snookered - there is nothing you can do.
int main()
int i,j,n,b;
printf("Enter no of rows ");
return 0;
fp = fopen("RKdata.dat","w");
fprintf(fp,"%5s %12s %20s %14s %15s %15s %15s\n","j","x","integrated","bessj2","bessj3","bessj4","bessj5");
for (j=1;j<=NSTEP;j+=1)
fprintf(fp,"%5i\t %12.4f\t %14.6f\t %14.6f\t %14.6f\t %14.6f\t %14.6f\n",